A longer maximum focal length allows you to focus in on a small part of a scene, and offers a narrower angle of view than shorter focal lengths.
The device is protected with extra seals to prevent failures caused by dust, raindrops, and water splashes.
A metal mount is generally superior to a plastic mount as it is more durable.
A shorter minimum focal length allows you to get more of the scene in the photo, and offers a wider angle of view than longer focal lengths.
The front element doesn’t rotate. This is important if you use filters, as some such as polarising or gradient filters have to be orientated a certain way.
We consider a lower weight better because lighter devices are more comfortable to carry. A lower weight is also an advantage for home appliances, as it makes transportation easier, and for many other types of products.
A prime lens has a fixed focal length. In general, these are sharper, with a wider aperture.
A macro lens is used to take very close-up photos, allowing you to capture flowers, insects etc. in great detail. A macro lens is any lens with 1:1 magnification.
A normal lens is one that doesn't fall into another category such as wide angle or telephoto, and typically has a focal length between 35mm and 70mm. These lenses aren't tailored towards a specific type of photography, and so are quite versatile.